Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D (the delta agent). The hepatitis D virus was discovered in Italy by Mario Rizzetto in 1977 during an investigation of the distribution of the Hepatitis B virus antigens in liver biopsy specimens of patients chronically infected…

Sarafem: The Drug Approved for PMS

Brand Name: Sarafem Active Ingredient: fluoxetine Indication: Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder; as Prozac, also approved for the treatment of depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and bulimia Company Name: Eli Lilly and Company Availability: Approved by FDA on July…

Case: Agents for upper GI disorders. Questions – Answers

Questions [1] Which of the following is the most common adverse effect of omeprazole? A. Black stools B. Constipation C. Headache D. Vomiting [2] Ranitidine inhibits which of the following? A. Gastrin binding to parietal cells B. Histamine…

Dysphagia: Definition

Dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing. Clinically, it includes the inability to initiate swallowing and/or the sensation that the swallowed solids or liquids stick in the esophagus. Odynophagia refers to pain with swallowing. In some disorders, odynophagia may accompany…

Tamoxifen: Breast Cancer

THE QUESTION Whether to take tamoxifen and whether to undergo chemotherapy are among the decisions made by women with breast cancer. Do the benefits of these treatments outweigh the risks — specifically the possibility of a stroke? THIS…

Visudyne for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Brand Name Drug: Visudyne Active Ingredient Drug: verteporfin for injection Indication: Treatment of wet form of age-related macular degeneration Company Name: CIBA Vision, the eye care unit of Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation Availability: Approvable letter issued by FDA on…

Tizanidine Hydrochloride

(British Approved Name Modified, US Adopted Name, rINNM) Drug Nomenclature INNs in main languages (French, Latin, Russian, and Spanish): Synonyms: AN-021; DS-103-282; DS-103-282-ch; Tizanidina, hidrocloruro de BAN: Tizanidine Hydrochloride [BANM] USAN: Tizanidine Hydrochloride INN: Tizanidine Hydrochloride [rINNM (en)]…

Chorionic Gonadotrophin

Drug Approvals (British Approved Name, rINN) International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) in main languages (French, Latin, and Spanish): CG; Choriogonadotrophin; Chorionic Gonadotropin; Chorioninis gonadotropinas; Gonadotrofina coridnica; Gonadotrophine Chorionique; Gonadotrophinum Chorionicum; Gonadotropin choriovy; Gonadotropine chorionique; Gonadotropinum chorionicum; hCG; Human Chorionic…

Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are eating disorders that are distinct but related syndromes that have in common an intense preoccupation with food. Patients with anorexia nervosa are characterized by a fear of becoming obese, disturbance in body…

Current Management

The management of patients with a chronic multisystem infection is more complex. Once a diagnosis of intestinal Whipples disease is reached, it is important to evaluate other commonly involved organ systems. After staging is completed, the choice and…