Liver Disease

Chronic Genetic Liver Diseases

Wilson’s disease Pathogenesis. Wilson’s disease is a treatable, genetic disorder. The metabolic defect leads to progressive accumulation of copper in the liver, brain (particularly in the basal ganglia), cornea, and kidneys, causing severe functional impairment leading to irreversible…

Hemochromatosis

Hemochromatosis refers to a group of disorders in which excessive iron absorption, either alone or in combination with parenteral iron loading, leads to a progressive increase in total body iron stores. Iron is deposited in the parenchymal cells…

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Definition Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  is a spectrum of liver diseases with histologic features of alcohol induced liver disease that occurs in individuals who do not consume significant quantities of alcohol. The spectrums of the liver diseases include…

Alcoholic Liver Disease

Epidemiology The association of alcohol abuse and liver damage has been known since the time of the ancient Greeks. The availability of alcoholic beverages, licensing laws, and economic, cultural, and environmental conditions all influence both per capita alcohol…

Ethanol metabolism

Absorption, distribution, and elimination. In a healthy man, about 100 mg of ethanol per kilogram of body weight is eliminated in an hour. Heavy alcohol consumption for years may increase the rate of ethanol elimination up to 100%….

Liver Transplantation

Liver transplantation is an effective and accepted therapy for a variety of chronic, irreversible liver diseases for which no other therapy has proved to be satisfactory. The liver can be transplanted as an extra (auxiliary) organ at another…

Evaluation

Goals Once the attending physician identifies a patient as a potential candidate for liver transplantation, he or she refers the patient to a transplant center where the patient undergoes a thorough evaluation to satisfy five specific goals: The…

Tumors of the Liver and Biliary System

Liver tumors The liver filters both arterial and portal venous blood and thus is a major site for the spread of metastatic cancers, particularly those that originate in the abdomen. Metastatic liver tumors can develop after the primary…

Operative procedure

Technical (procedure-related) complications. The abdominal wall incision used by most transplant surgeons is a bilateral subcostal incision that is extended in the upper midline. The xiphoid process is excised. Complications of these incisions include infections, hernias, and granulomas…