Complaints and Disorders

Diagnosis of Alcoholic Liver Disease

Clinical presentation Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute or chronic illness associated with severe chronic alcoholism, involving extensive hepatocellular necrosis, inflammation, and scarring. It is extremely variable in clinical presentation and may be superimposed on other forms of alcoholic…

Drug-Related Hepatic Injury

More than 600 drugs have been reported to cause liver injury. Drug-related hepatic injury can mimic almost all patterns of liver injury seen in humans. The injury can be hepatocellular necrosis, cholestatic disease, deposition of microvesicular fat in…

Obesity

Epidemiology It is estimated that three of five American adults are overweight or obese (> 100 million persons) and the cost of obesity in the United State is in excess of $100 billion annually. In the last 30…

Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Diseases

Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Diseases in Patients with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome Gastrointestinal diseases associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection The treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection has dramatically improved over the last several years with…

Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity

Acetaminophen (Tylenol or Paracetemol) is an analgesic-antipyretic with few side effects when taken in therapeutic doses in most individuals. However, it is a potent hepatotoxin leading to hepatic necrosis when taken in large overdoses. Most instances of acetaminophen-related…

Postgastrectomy Disorders

Gastrectomy usually means removal of part of the stomach and anastomosis of the gastric remnant with either the duodenum (Billroth I) or a loop of proximal jejunum (Billroth II). These operations typically are performed as surgical treatment of…

Nausea and Vomiting

Definition Nausea is usually defined as the inclination to vomit or as a feeling in the throat or epigastric region alerting an individual that vomiting is imminent. Vomiting is defined as the ejection or expulsion of gastric contents…

Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting

General principles Most cases of nausea and vomiting are self-limiting, resolve spontaneously, and require only symptomatic therapy. Antiemetic therapy is indicated in patients with electrolyte disturbances secondary to vomiting, severe anorexia or weight loss, or progression of disease…

Stress Ulcer

Stress ulcer refers to an ulcer or, more often, multiple ulcers that develop during the severe physiologic stress of serious illness. 1. The pathogenesis of stress ulcer is unclear but probably is related to a reduction in mucosal…

Vascular Disease of the Bowel

Vascular disorders of the gastrointestinal tract typically present as abdominal pain or bleeding, or both. Several of the disorders that cause bleeding, such as ischemic colitis, angiodysplastic lesions, and vascular-enteric fistulas. Mesenteric vascular insufficiency. The clinical spectrum of…