Cirrhosis

Variceal Bleeding

Variceal bleeding primarily reflects portal hypertension. The role of acid reflux and its contribution to initiation of variceal bleeding is not clear. Even though there is no clear agreement as to whether bleeding correlates with the severity of…

Cirrhosis and Its Complications

Cirrhosis is a disease state that is the consequence of a wide variety of chronic, progressive liver diseases. These result in diffuse destruction of hepatic parenchyma and its replacement with collagenous scar tissue and regenerating nodules with disruption…

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

Epidemiology Primary biliary cirrhosis is one of the more common forms of chronic liver disease. The estimated prevalence is four to 14 cases per 100,000 people. It is characterized by chronic inflammation and destruction of small interlobular intrahepatic…

Hepatorenal Syndrome

Hepatorenal syndrome is a progressive, functional renal failure that occurs in patients with severe liver disease. Most of these patients have decompensated cirrhosis and tense ascites. Similar syndromes may be seen in metastatic liver disease and fulminant hepatitis…

Hepatic Encephalopathy

Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric syndrome occurring in patients with acute or chronic liver failure. Patients with chronic liver disease develop a more indolent encephalopathy, called portosystemic encephalopathy. It accompanies the development of portal systemic collaterals that arise…

Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension

Definitions Cirrhosis is defined as a diffuse process characterized by fibrosis and a conversion of the normal hepatic architecture into structurally abnormal nodules. The end result is destruction of hepatocytes and their replacement by fibrous tissue. The resulting…