Diabetes mellitus -is a group of endocrine diseases arising from an absolute or relative deficiency of the hormone called insulin that causes hyperglycemia – a steady increase of blood glucose.
The primary cause of disease is a hereditary factor. It may also be caused by hormonal imbalances, disorders of the thyroid, and adrenal or pituitary gland. Quite often, the disease develops duting pregnancy and in obese individuals, as well as after stress and depression. In modern medicine, diabetes is considered pluricausal disease that combines a number of diseases. The disease is chronic by nature and is expressed through violation of all types of metabolism: carbohydrate, fat, protein, mineral, water and salt.
Diabetes can not be cured, but with strict observance of all instructions, your doctor can reduce its threat to life and health to a minimum, and exclude the possibility of complications of the disease.
Considering all the properties of the patient, the nature of the course and progression, after a comprehensive diagnosis and performing all necessary tests, an endocrinologist elaborates a special diet. Normally, during their treatment, patients with diabetes should limit or even eliminate sugary foods and drinks, alcohol and sweet fruit. It is advised to eat in small portions 4-5 times a day.
Also, for the successful treatment of diabetes, the patient should self-monitor glucose levels in blood and urine by using rapid tests, and if necessary, take daily insulin.
Most medical specialist prescribes their patients medication aiming at reducing blood glucose level. In addition, an individual set of physical exercises should be developed for each patient.
The most common forms of diabetes mellitus of type 1 and type 2 are inherited polygenically, which means that the risk of these forms of diabetes is associated with multiple genes. In the development of polygenic forms of diabetes environmental factors also play significant role. This is obesity, in the case of the type 2 diabetes. Polygenic forms of diabetes are often seen in family history. Physicians diagnose polygenic forms of diabetes by blood glucose, with the presence of risk factors or symptoms of diabetes.
If your body no longer produces enough insulin, then you need to consume it. Insulin is used to treat all types of diabetes. Your doctor can help you choose the route of administration of insulin, which will fit you best:
- IInjections. You do yourself a injection of insulin with a syringe. Some people are using a syringe pen for this purpose, which looks like a real pen, but in the place where the writer tip has to be, there is a thin needle.
- An insulin pump. Insulin pump is a small engine – sized mobile phone that is worn on the outside of the belt or pocket. The pump is connected to a small plastic tube, on the end of which there is a very thin plastic cannula. The cannula is placed under the skin and stays there for a few days. Insulin goes from the pump through a tube into your body.
- Injector. Injector, which looks like a very large Liner, sends a stream of insulin through the skin under high pressure without using a needle.