Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Non-steroidal, that is, non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to suppress inflammatory reactions in the body.
One of the first drugs in this group that has received wide recognition. WE are talking about the present day aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid. It was introduced to the humanity in the XX century. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have become popular with almost all medical specialties because of its antipyretic, analgesic, and antirheumatic properties.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) effectively reduce inflammation and thereby significantly reduce both pain in the joints with arthrosis and arthritis and back pain during the diseases of the spine. At the time of exacerbation of the disease, anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed in adequate doses which can bring significant relief to the patient.
Therefore, when using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, patient is suggested a few rules to observe:
- Read and understand instructions and strictly adhere to regulations for use of drugs;
- taking tablets or capsules, drink a full glass of water to protect the stomach lining from irritation;
- after taking the tablets or capsules do not try to lie down for 20-30 minutes. Gravity helps the passage of tablets through the esophagus;
- Do not drink alcoholic beverages, as the joint use of alcohol and NSAIDs increases the risk of gastric diseases;
- NSAIDs is better not to be taken during pregnancy. In the case when pregnant woman needs the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs she should consult her doctor and weigh the “pros” and “cons” of their application;
- Do not take two different non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug on the same day. The positive effect is not increased, but the side one is added. It is best to harmonize with your doctor to increase the dose of one drug than to use a different NSAIDs at the same time;
- If any of the drugs does not work, check (sufficiency) dose of medicine. It may be that you took the drug at a lower dose than normal. Sometimes it happens accidentally, by mistake, sometimes intentionally. Normally, doctors begin treatment with low doses;
- If a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs does not render the necessary steps, try to change the product: it may occur, that a new tool for you will be more effective.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs or NSAIDs) are the group of drugs that have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effect. Their action is based on blocking the production of prostaglandins. Currently non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the are amongst the most popular drugs used in clinical practice.
Aspirin is a typical representative of NPVP. It is the most known NSAID (it is also called acetylsalicylic acid). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs also include diflunisal, lizinmonoatsetilsalitsilat, phenylbutazone, indomethacin, sulindac, etodolac, diclofenac, piroxicam, tenoksikam, Lornoxicam, meloxicam, ibuprofen, naproxen, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, tiaprofen acid nabumeton, nimesulide, celecoxib, rofecoxib, mesalazine many others.
The main problem with using the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is that being the most effective medications for the treatment of many diseases, they also damage the mucosa of the stomach and duodenum. Both therapeutic and damaging effects of NSAIDs are the consequences of inhibition of prostaglandin production of NSAIDs.
The main physiological functions of prostaglandins in the digestive tract are to stimulate the secretion of protective mucus and bicarbonates, to activate the cell proliferation in the normal processes of regeneration, and to strengthen the local blood flow in the mucosa. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are performed due to the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX).There are two isoforms of COX – COX-1 and COX-2. The first of these present in most tissues, including the gastrointestinal mucosa, controls the production of prostaglandins that regulate the integrity of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, platelet function and renal blood flow. COX-2 plays a role of “structural” enzyme only in certain organs (brain, kidneys, bones, etc.) and is normally not found in other tissues. Its expression is significantly increased under the influence of “proinflammatory” stimulus and, conversely, decreases under the action of endogenous substances with anti-inflammatory activity. It is believed that anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs depend on the blocking of COX-2, and their side effects are associated with suppression of COX-1.