Anorectal Disorders

Hemorrhoids

Pathogenesis. Hemorrhoids are dilated veins within the anal canal and distal rectum. External hemorrhoids are derived from the external hemorrhoidal plexus below the dentate line and are covered by stratified squamous epithelium. Internal hemorrhoids are derived from the…

Proctitis

Pathogenesis. Proctitis is an inflammation of the rectal mucosa. It may be idiopathic or related to a specific cause, such as radiation or gonococcal infection. Clinical presentation. Patients with proctitis typically complain of pain and bleeding on defecation….

Hemorrhoids and Other Anorectal Disorders

Nearly everyone has experienced anorectal discomfort. Our low-fiber diet, which results in small, hard stools; our lifestyle, which restricts the opportunities for defecation; and our erect posture, which promotes engorgement of the hemorrhoidal plexus, all combine to make…